Occlusion Heightened by Metal Crown Cementation is Aggressive for Periodontal Tissues

Purpose: To investigate the effect of experimental traumatic occlusion (ETO) induced by metal crowns on alveolar bone loss.
Materials and Methods: Metal crowns were custom-made for the lower first molars with occlusal discrepancy of 0.4 and 0.7 mm from the maximum intercuspation.
Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12 animals per group): 0.4-mm hyperocclusion group, 0.7-mm hyperocclusion group and the sham group (no metal crown). Twenty-eight days after crown cementation, the animals were euthanized and gingival tissue was collected to assess cytokine levels of IL-17, IL-6, and TNF-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mandibles
were stained with 1% methylene blue and alveolar bone levels were quantified. Western blotting was used to quantify the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL), secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT) and TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE). Also, mandibles were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, from which the presence of osteoclast-like cells, multinucleated cells containing ≥3 nuclei was counted at 100× magnification. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.
Results:Experimental occlusal trauma for 28 consecutive days significantly increased alveolar bone loss and multinucleated cell counts (p < 0.05). RANK, RANKL, SOFAT, TACE, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly higher in gingival tissues of ETO groups (p < 0.05). IL-17 titers were unchanged among the groups (p >0.05).
Conclusion: Experimental traumatic occlusion activates and sustains bone resorption pathways in the periodontium inducing alveolar bone resorption. As the intensity of occlusal trauma increased, alternative osteoclastic pathways were activated, such as TACE and SOFAT.